Image Texture Features Predict Renal Function Decline in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients
Kline TL, Korfiatis P, Edwards ME, Bae KT, Yu A, Chapman AB, Mrug M, Grantham JJ, Landsittel D, Bennett WM, Flessner MF, King BF, Harris PC, Torres VE, Erickson BJ. Image Texture Features Predict Renal Function Decline in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients. 2017 Nov;92(5):1206-1216. Kidney International. PMID: 28532709 Epub 2017 May 20. DOI: 10.1016/j.kint.2017.03.026
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations provide high-resolution information about the anatomic structure of the kidneys and are used to measure total kidney volume (TKV) in patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Height-adjusted TKV (HtTKV) has become the gold-standard imaging biomarker for ADPKD progression at early stages of the disease when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is still normal. However, HtTKV does not take advantage of the wealth of information provided by MRI. Here we tested whether image texture features provide additional insights into the ADPKD kidney that may be used as complementary information to existing biomarkers. A retrospective cohort of 122 patients from the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) study was identified who had T2-weighted MRIs and eGFR values over 70 mL/min/1.73m2 at the time of their baseline scan. We computed nine distinct image texture features for each patient. The ability of each feature to predict subsequent progression to CKD stage 3A, 3B, and 30% reduction in eGFR at eight-year follow-up was assessed. A multiple linear regression model was developed incorporating age, baseline eGFR, HtTKV, and three image texture features identified by stability feature selection (Entropy, Correlation, and Energy). Including texture in a multiple linear regression model (predicting percent change in eGFR) improved Pearson correlation coefficient from -0.51 (using age, eGFR, and HtTKV) to -0.70 (adding texture). Thus, texture analysis offers an approach to refine ADPKD prognosis and should be further explored for its utility in individualized clinical decision making and outcome prediction.