Heyer CM, Sundsbak JL, Abebe KZ, Chapman AB, Torres VE, Grantham JJ, Bae KT, Schrier RW, Perrone RD, Braun WE, Steinman TI, Mrug M, Yu A, Brosnahan G, Hopp K, Bennett WM, Flessner MF, Moore CG, Landsittel D and Harris PC for the HALT PKD and CRISP Investigators. Predicted Mutation Strength of Nontruncating PKD1 Mutations Aids Genotype-Phenotype Correlations in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2016; 27(9):2872-2884. PMID: 26823553 PMCID: PMC5004648 [Available on 2017-09-01] DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2015050583
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) often results in ESRD but with a highly variable course. Mutations to PKD1 or PKD2 cause ADPKD; both loci have high levels of allelic heterogeneity. We evaluated genotype-phenotype correlations in 1119 patients (945 families) from the HALT Progression of PKD Study and the Consortium of Radiologic Imaging Study of PKD Study. The population was defined as: 77.7% PKD1, 14.7% PKD2, and 7.6% with no mutation detected (NMD). Phenotypic end points were sex, eGFR, height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV), and liver cyst volume. Analysis of the eGFR and htTKV measures showed that the PKD1 group had more severe disease than the PKD2 group, whereas the NMD group had a PKD2-like phenotype. In both the PKD1 and PKD2 populations, men had more severe renal disease, but women had larger liver cyst volumes. Compared with nontruncating PKD1 mutations, truncating PKD1 mutations associated with lower eGFR, but the mutation groups were not differentiated by htTKV. PKD1 nontruncating mutations were evaluated for conservation and chemical change and subdivided into strong (mutation strength group 2 [MSG2]) and weak (MSG3) mutation groups. Analysis of eGFR and htTKV measures showed that patients with MSG3 but not MSG2 mutations had significantly milder disease than patients with truncating cases (MSG1), an association especially evident in extreme decile populations. Overall, we have quantified the contribution of genic and PKD1 allelic effects and sex to the ADPKD phenotype. Intrafamilial correlation analysis showed that other factors shared by families influence htTKV, with these additional genetic/environmental factors significantly affecting the ADPKD phenotype.